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5. Apinagia Tulasne emend. P. Royen

Apinagia Tulasne, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. III, 11: 97 (1849); van Roy­en, Med. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijksuniv. Utrecht 107: 25--69, 128--131 (1951), rev.
Oenone Tulasne (1849).
Ligea Poiteau ex Tulasne (1849).
Monostylis Tulasne (1853).
Neolacis Weddell (1873).

Roots ribbon-like to ± cylindrical and thread-like, branched; holdfasts, in most species, develop from basal portions of root-borne stems; stems arising along root margins, usually in opposite or subopposite pairs, either very short, disk-like and appearing stemless or elongate, when elongate then simple or branched, when flowering each module with rarely 1 or mostly  2 leaves with a flower between them. Leaves in species with disk-like stems united at their bases and confluent with short stems which serve as holdfasts, in species with elongate stems free; petioles present or 0; sheaths simple or double; leaf blades very variable in shape, lanceolate, lobed to pinnatisect with the tips and, rarely also the lobes, highly divided into filamentous segments, flat portions of blades often with tufts of filaments on upper surface; ultimate filamentous segments sometimes inrolled when young. Spathellas club-shaped to tubular. Flowers solitary, in cyme-like inflorescences or, as fascicles in cavities of disk-like stems; pedicels (0.5--) 1--7 (--12) cm long; tepals 2--16, free or united, whorled or confined to one side of flower; stamens 1--30, whorled or confined to one side of flower; anthers dehiscing introrsely or, in 2 spp., extrorsely; pollen in monads. Capsules ovoid; each valve with 1--7 ribs, the ribs sometimes unequal in length, sometimes represented by grooves or stripes; stigmas cylindrical to linear. Seeds 20 to ± 600. About 50 spp., probably much less when critically examined, northern & central South America.

Subfam. Podostemoideae

Apinagia surumuensis. A Vegetative shoot (2 cm). B A. batrachifolia. Flower (2 mm). C A. pygmaea Flower (1 mm).

Cook & Rutishauser 2007

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