9. Crenias A. Sprengel
Crenias A. Sprengel in K. P. J. Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 4 (2) Curae postoriores: 246 (1827); van Royen, Acta Bot. Neerl. 3: 224--228 (1954), rev. (under Mniopsis); Philbrick & Novelo, Syst. Bot. Monographs 70: 1--106 (2004), rev. (under Podostemum).
Mniopsis Mart. (1823 or 1824), nom. illeg.
Roots thread-like and usually laterally flattened, branching; stems arising from lateral margins of root, usually in opposite or subopposite pairs, simple or branched, usually with leaf remains below and a tuft of leaves at the tip. Leaves entire or a few times forked, with 1 stipule on front side of dorsiventral shoot, attached to or detached from associated leaf, the 2 dorsal rows of stipules accompanying the 2 lateral leaf rows. Spathellas bell- or club-shaped, up to 3 mm long, splitting irregularly from top. Flowers few to numerous; pedicels hardly exceeding spathella; tepals 2 or 3, one each side of andropodium and one, when present, between or below filaments; stamens 2, borne on andropodium; anthers dehiscing introrsely; pollen in dyads. Capsules globose to ellipsoidal, smooth, 2-locular, valves unequal, the larger persistent, the sutures oblique; stigmas equal, covered with hair-like papillae, usually palmately branched,.one species (Crenias glazioviana) with simple stigmas. About five spp., SE Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses (Philbrick and Novelo 2004) place this genus within Podostemum.